Chemical Warfare Tunnel at Glenbrook

Chemical Warfare Armourers Geoff Burn (left) and Les Parsons reminisce at the east cutting of Glenbrook Tunnel. It was here the maintenance of mustard gas weapons was undertaken from 1942 to 1946

Chemical Warfare Tunnel at Glenbrook

Chemical Warfare Armourers Geoff Burn (left) and Les Parsons reminisce at the east cutting of Glenbrook Tunnel. It was here the maintenance of mustard gas weapons was undertaken from 1942 to 1946

Railway Siding at Glenbrook

Chemical Weapons arrived at Glenbrook railway siding by train. They were transfered here to semi trailers and taken to the nearby tunnel

Chemical Warfare Tunnel at Glenbrook

East entrance to the chemical weapons storage tunnel at Glenbrook. It is now an overgrown swamp. Welcome sign above door

History Channel at Glenbrook Tunnel

History Channel filming at Glenbrook Tunnel, November 2008 for the episode 'Alcatraz Down Under' of 'Cities of the Underworld'. Camera at west end of the chemical warfare storage tunnel

History Channel at Glenbrook Tunnel

Don Wildman with Arthur Lewis filming at Glenbrook Tunnel, November 2008 for the episode 'Alcatraz Down Under' of 'Cities of the Underworld'. Camera at the west end of the chemical warfare storage tunnel

History Channel at Glenbrook Tunnel

Don Wildman taking a photo at Glenbrook Tunnel, November 2008 for the episode 'Alcatraz Down Under' of 'Cities of the Underworld'

History Channel at Glenbrook Tunnel

Don Wildman in the opening sequence for the episode 'Alcatraz Down Under' of 'Cities of the Underworld' with Geoff Burn and Arthur Lewis.

History Channel at Glenbrook Tunnel

Don Wildman interviews Geoff Burn and Arthur Lewis at the entrance of Glenbrook Tunnel for the episode 'Alcatraz Down Under' of 'Cities of the Underworld'

History Channel at Glenbrook Tunnel

Don Wilman with Arthur Lewis inside Glenbrook Tunnel filming for the episode 'Alcatraz Down Under' of 'Cities of the Underworld'

History Channel at Glenbrook Tunnel

Geoff Burn (left), Arthur Lewis and host Don Wildman pose at the end of shooting for the episode 'Alcatraz Down Under' of 'Cities of the Underworld'

250-lb Phosgene Bombs

250-lb phosgene bombs recovered from Marrangaroo Army Base in 2008. They were buried filled or partially filled by chemical warfare armourer Geoff Burn but were empty when excavated

250 lb Phosgene Bombs

250-lb phosgene bombs recovered from Marrangaroo Army Base in 2008. Major Kevin Cuthbertson in attendance. Photo: Lithgow Mercury

250 lb Phosgene Bombs

250-lb phosgene bombs recovered from Marrangaroo Army Base in 2008 and awaiting destruction

250 lb Phosgene Bombs

Close up of 250-lb phosgene bombs recovered from Marrangaroo Army Base in 2008

250 lb Phosgene Bomb Extraction Pit 2008

Major Kevin Cuthbertson at the 250-lb phosgene bomb extraction pit at Marrangaroo Army Base in 2008. Photo: Lithgow Mercury

Chemical Warfare meeting at Marrangaroo Army Base

Residents next to Marrangaroo Army Base in 2008 receiving instruction on the impending chemical weapons extraction. They are being briefed on safety precautions. Photo: Lithgow Mercury

250 lb Chemical Weapons Extraction Pit 2009

Milsearch personnel in anti gas attire at the Marrangaroo Army Base 2009 extraction pit. Hundreds of 250-lb chemical weapons were recovered from here. Photo: Defence Department

Hundreds of 250 lb Chemical Weapons Extracted in 2009

Hundreds of 250-lb chemical weapons recovered from the 2009 extraction pit at Marrangaroo Army Base. They await destruction. Photo: Len Ashworth

Chemical Warfare Tunnel at Glenbrook

Roof detail showing how beautifully preserved the tunnel is

Chemical Warfare Tunnel at Glenbrook

Rear east end view. Currently flooded

Chemical Warfare Tunnel at Marrangaroo

Showing wall detail

Chemical Warfare Tunnel at Marrangaroo

Geoff Burn (right) approaching the east end of Marrangaroo tunnel. Mustard gas bombs were stored here

Chemical Warfare Tunnel at Marrangaroo

Approaching the east end of Marrangaroo tunnel. Mustard gas bombs were stored here

Chemical Warfare Tunnel at Marrangaroo

Eastern entrance to the mustard gas storage tunnel

Chemical Warfare Tunnel at Marrangaroo

Roof of Marrangaroo tunnel as it is today. Showing its age

Chemical Warfare Tunnel at Marrangaroo

Inside Marrangaroo chemical weapons tunnel looking to the entrance at the west end

Chemical Warfare Tunnel at Marrangaroo

Western entrance to the mustard bomb storage tunnel at Marrangaroo

Phosgene Bomb Storage at Marrangaroo

Another view of 250-lb phosgene bombs in sheds at the Marrangaroo Tunnel cutting

Chemical Warfare Tunnel at Marrangaroo

Close up of an original foundation to one of the phosgene bomb (250 lb) storage sheds. One of the few not in the cutting they were added last to accomodate overspill

Phosgene Bomb Storage at Marrangaroo

250-lb phosgene bombs in sheds at the Marrangaroo Tunnel cutting. The foundations to these sheds still exist. See photo to right

Chemical Warfare Tunnel at Marrangaroo

Original foundation to one of the phosgene bomb (250 lb) storage sheds. These bombs could not be stored in the tunnel due to the lethal nature of the gas so sheds with good ventilation at the top were erected. The walls have long since disappeared

Chemical Warfare Tunnel at Marrangaroo

Cutting just east of the Mudgee highway where most of the phosgene bomb (250 lb) storage sheds were located in WWII

Phosgene Bomb Storage at Marrangaroo

250-lb phosgene bombs in sheds at the Marrangaroo Tunnel cutting as seen in 1943. Looking west to the Mudgee highway. See railway cutting in the photo to left

Phosgene Bomb Storage at Marrangaroo

250-lb phosgene bombs in sheds at the Marrangaroo Tunnel cutting

Chemical Warfare Tunnel at Marrangaroo

Original foundation to one of the phosgene bomb (250 lb) storage sheds. Like this one most of the sheds were in the cutting just east of the Mudgee highway. The cutting acted like a 'trench' which was the recommended storage method

Chemical Warfare Tunnel at Marrangaroo

Original foundation to one of the phosgene bomb (250 lb) storage sheds. These bombs could not be stored in the tunnel due to the lethal nature of the gas so sheds with good ventilation at the top were erected

Chemical Warfare Tunnel at Marrangaroo

Maintenance area for the mustard gas bombs (mainly 30 and 250 lb) in the Marrangaroo chemical weapons depot. The area was crudely covered with a tarpaulin taken from one of the delivery trains. Compare with original photo on the right

Chemical Warfare Tunnel at Marrangaroo

Maintenance area for the mustard gas bombs (mainly 30 and 250-lb) in the Marrangaroo chemical weapons depot as it appeared mid 1943. The area was crudely covered with a tarpaulin taken from one of the delivery trains. The chemical warfare armourer pictured is Geoff Burn with 250-lb bombs lining both sides of old rail road

Chemical Warfare Tunnel at Marrangaroo

The bricked pit next to the chemical weapons maintenance area. It was used as a water reservoir for the steam trains before the line was abandoned

Marrangarroo Army Base Fake Town

The only surviving establishment of the WWII fake town - RYANS HOTEL. The markings on the roof are identical to those of 1943. The hitching rail at the front (for horses) has been removed

Marrangarroo Army Base Fake Town

RYANS HOTEL as it appeared during the war

Marrangarroo Army Base Fake Town

Original administration building in the WWII fake town

Marrangarroo Army Base Fake Town

The street on the Army base was disguised as a fake town in WWII replete with butchers, bakery, petrol station and hotel. Paper mache animals were moved around the establishment as the military personnel made their way around the base. Only the hotel still stands

Hoax Butchers at Marrangaroo

Alf Jones’s butcher shop selling ‘High Class Meat’. The fake butchers at the Marrangaroo Army Base to confuse Japanese aerial surveillance

Marrangarroo Army Base Chemical Weapons Siding

Established in 1942 the siding on the Marrangaroo Army Base received rail trucks filled with mustard gas and phosgene bombs. They were taken from here to the storage tunnel about 3 km away by truck

The Mustard Gas Men

Chemical Warfare Armourers at Glenbrook Tunnel sit atop Chemical Special No. 6 mustard gas containers

United Stated Chemical Weapons Storage Depot at Darra

United States chemical weapons storage depot at Darra, Brisbane, Queensland. The containers are likely to be 1 ton bulk cylinders filled with US manufactured levinstein mustard gas.

Mustard Gas Tunnel at Glenbrook

Mustard Gas drums outside the chemical weapons tunnel at Glenbrook in 1943

25 Pound Gas Shell Trial

A 25-pounder chemical shell bursting during the gas shell shoot at Townsville, November 1942. The white puff (right) is caused by the shell burst, the dust (left) caused by the empty shell case striking the ground.

Mustard Gas Charging Unit

View of the camouflaged plant used to charge United States manufactured levinstein mustard gas into bombs at the US chemical weapons storage depot at Charters Towers, Queensland, mid-1943. M47A2 mustard gas bombs (100 lb) are seen on a platform to the right of the picture.

Mustard Gas Charging Unit

Close-up of one unit of the mustard gas charging plant at the United States chemical warfare storage depot at Charters Towers, Queensland, mid-1943.

Mustard Gas Storage Drums

Chemical Warfare Armourer, Mel Carney, atop a mustard gas filled drum in the cutting at Glenbrook Tunnel

Chemical Weapons Storage Shed, Talmoi, Queensland

Chemical Weapons Storage Shed, Talmoi, Queensland with 250-lb bombs

Mustard Gas Exposed Goat

Goat being dissected. It had been placed in a foxhole and was exposed to mustard gas. Representing a 'Japanese Soldier' the damage is being assessed

Mustard Gas Exposure Experiment

Mustard Gas being poured into 65-lb bombs. From there the mustard was poured into watering cans for dispersal in an 'annulus' ring where volunteers walked around in various states of dress

Chemical Weapons Disposal

Burn off disposal of chemical weapons at Talmoi, Queensland

M47A2 Mustard Gas Bombs

Empty United States manufactured M47A2 100-lb mustard gas bombs awaiting filling at Charters Towers, mid-1943. Note the left most bomb is labelled HS, the US code for levinstein mustard gas. This was the standard fill for US manufactured weapons in Australia.

Phosgene Venting

Phogene gas venting from 250-lb bombs at Talmoi, Queensland after the war

Chemical Warfare Armourers Badge

Created after the war and sponsored by Veteran Affairs

Chemical Research Unit, Bowen

Chemical Warfare Armourer Frank Moran with a Beaufort Bomber at the Chemical Research Unit, Bowen, Queensland. The Beauforts were used to dump mustard bombs at numerous locations for 'live trials'

Chemical Weapons Being Transported

Chemical weapons being trucked to the newly established chemical depot at 88 mile (near Darwin in the Northern Territory) in 1944

Chemical Warfare Depot at Charters Towers

Haphazard storage of M47A2 mustard gas bombs (in crates) at the United States chemical warfare depot at Charters Towers in Queensland in 1943

Mustard Gas Spray Tank

A SCI (Smoke Curtain Installation) tank below a Wellington aircraft. Mustard gas was sprayed on troops with a gravity feed

65 lb Mustard Gas Bomb

Very common United Kingdom mustard gas bomb. Essentially a 4 gallon kerosene can. It has a flag a the top for flight stability. Transported in crates due to fragility

Mustard Gas Spray Tank

Beaufort bomber with mustard gas spray tank attached in March, 1943. The tank is being filled with a mustard gas simulant S2(D) at Corowa, New South Wales for a trial

Glenbrook Chemical Weapons Tunnel

Only known surviving photo from within one of the four chemical weapons tunnels in Australia. To the left are Chemical Special No. 6 mustard gas cans (used to charge bombs) and to the right drums

Cleaning Mustard Gas Bombs

'Buzzing off'. Using electric buzzers to derust 250-lb mustard gas bombs at the eastern entrance of Marrangaroo tunnel in 1943

General Douglas MacArthur

General Douglas MacArthur at an anti-gas training lecture in Queensland. MacArthur controlled the use of chemical weapons in Australia

Japanese Toxic Smoke Generator

Captured Japanese toxic smoke generator filled with diphenylcyanoarsine being tested by the Chemical Warfare Laboratory in 1945

Chemical Warfare Armourers

Air force chemical warfare armourers atop a truck

Chemical Warfare Laboratory

Chemical Warfare Laboratory examination of a Japanese respirator container

Maintenance of Mustard Gas Drums

Maintenance cutting (east) of Glenbrook mustard gas tunnel. Drums of mustard to right

Gas Mask Testing

Women testing gas masks at the Munition Supply Laboratories, Melbourne

Glenbrook Mustard Gas Tunnel

West end tunnel entrance. Drums of mustard to left

Glenbrook Tunnel Chemical Warfare Depot

Chemical warfare headquarters at Glenbrook. Offices, orderly room and Officers' quarters

Glenbrook Chemical Weapons Tunnel

Glenbrook camp at west end. Kitchen to left and temporary accommodation to right

Glenbrook Tunnel Anti-Gas Store

Anti-gas clothing store at the top secret Glenbrook tunnel chemical weapons depot

Marrangaroo Mustard Gas Tunnel

One of the ferocious dogs guarding the mustard gas bomb storage tunnel at Marrangaroo

Glenbrook Tunnel

Masonite hut accommodation for the chemical weapons tunnel depot at Glenbrook

Penis Burnt With Mustard Gas

Penis and scrotum of Army guinea pig burnt in a mustard gas trial. The penis is blistered and edematous (swollen) with the scrotum pigmented and showing desquamation (loss of skin by peeling/scaling). The moist areas of the body were particularly susceptible to mustard gas. Guinea pig was an officially used term. Photo: Arthur Trewin

Penis & Scrotum Burnt With Mustard Gas

World War I victim showing the devastating effects of mustard gas. The characteristic pigmentation and desquamation (loss of skin by peeling/scaling) are well demonstrated. Photo: Digger History

88 Mile Chemical Weapons Depot

Located near Darwin this is a view of the chemical weapons depot south of Darwin

250-lb Mustard Gas Bomb

Filled 250-lb mustard gas bomb undergong maintenance by chemical warfare armourer Wally Gerradd at Marrangaroo. The Y3 label denotes the type of mustard gas and LC = light case

Firing accuracy after mustard gas exposure

Captain Jim McAllester, head of the 2/1st Australian Chemical Warfare Laboratory prepares targets for the improvised rifle range on which thirty servicemen will fire to test their marksmanship after being exposed to the effects of gas at Townsville in November 1942. Photo: War Memorial

Mustard gas burning at Newnes State Forest

Disposal of mustard gas stocks after the war at Newnes State Forest near Sydney. Incendaries were used to aid the conflagration. Chemical special No. 6 containers are seen to the front left

Spraying Plane With Mustard Gas

Beaufort plane being sprayed with mustard gas in preparation for a trial flight at the Chemical Research Unit at Bowen. The brakes seized on landing

Gassed Australian Soldiers, 1918

Australian soldiers gassed by mustard gas lie in the open at an overcrowded aid post near Bois De l’Abbe, France, 27 May 1918. They were gassed during operations at Villers-Bretonneux. Photo: War Memorial

Gassed Diggers, 1918

A group of unidentified Australian soldiers, suffering from the effects of mustard gas, are gathered at the Regimental Aid Post of the 42nd Battalion awaiting medical attention. 27 May 1918. Photo: War Memorial

Gas Drill, Palestine 1917

Members of the Australian Light Horse Brigade emerge from a cloud of gas during a practice anti-gas drill. Palestine? 1917. Photo: War Memorial

Gallipoli Gas Masks

Gallipoli, Turkey, circa July 1915. Informal outdoors group portrait of members of the 1st Australian Divisional Signal Company wearing some of the first consignment of gas masks delivered to Anzac Cove. Immediately behind the men (right) is a dugout, with a second dugout protected by walls of sandbags in the background (left). Photo: War Memorial

The Mustard Gas Men

Glenbrook tunnel cutting atop chemical special no. 6 mustard gas filled canisters.(Left to right) Tiny Waterman, Mark Williams, Geoff ‘Tassie’ Burn, Les Parsons, Arthur Blackwell and Alan Jack.

Defence Minister & Prime Minister of Australia

Defence Minister Street (left) with Prime Minister Menzies in 1940. In the previous year Street had approved the investigation of mustard gas production in Australia. Photo: War Memorial

Burning of Mustard Gas at Talmoi

Drums filled with mustard gas being prepared for destruction by fire at Talmoi. The wooden crates added fuel for the fire

Japanese Gas Masks in Papua New Guinea

Japanese cache captured at Komiatum Ridge, Papua New Guinea in 1943. There were multiple gas masks

Japanese Anti-Gas Display

Enemy anti-gas respirator display at Wesley College museum. The exhibition was staged by the Master-General of Ordnance Branch, Land Headquarters, Melbourne. Australia was well aware of the Japanese chemical warfare capability and the captured equipment gave concrete supporting evidence. 14 August 1943.

Anti-gas Training

‘The possibility of the Japanese army using poison gas against our forces has not been overlooked, and all troops are being trained to the accustomed wearing of respirators. Even clerical staffs at camp headquarters have to wear their respirators for an hour each day in order that they may become used to working in them should the real necessity arise.’ 7 June 1942.

Captured Japanese gas Mask

Japanese gas mask found at Milne Bay, Papua New Guinea, after the unsuccessful Japanese attack on Milne Bay. Australia felt the need to possess a retaliatory stock of chemical weapons in response to the threat posed by the Japanese chemical warfare capability. Photo taken on 1 October 1942.

Mustard Gas Blisters

Anterior surface of elbow of a serviceman in the evening of the second day after he had been exposed to the effects of mustard gas from 25-pounder shells at Forbes. Mustard gas causes characteristic blisters. February 1943. Photo: War Memorial

Conjunctivitis Caused by Mustard Gas

Singleton 25 pounder trial. Wiping mustard gas affected eyes while inspecting a mustard gas detector plate

25 Pounder Gas Shoot

2/2 Field Regiment firing gas shell at the trial at Forbes in February 1943. Photo: War Memorial

Chemical Warfare Armourer Reunion

Held at Penrith in 1990 it was the first and only meeting of former chemical warfare staff

Mobile Chemical Warfare Laboratory

Mobile workshop of the 2/1 Australian Chemical Warfare laboratory. Photo: War Memorial

War gas Analysis

Determining war gas amounts in a contaminated sample. 2/1 Australian Chemical Warfare Laboratory. Photo: War Memorial

Freddy Krueger

Shot for the History Channel 'Alcatraz Down Under'

Air Force Trainees & Gas masks

Air Force trainees at Victoria, 1943

Shooting Practice with Gas Masks

Air Force shooting practice with gas masks

Gas Chamber Training

Gas chamber training in Tasmania, 1943. Photo: War Memorial

Gas masks

Chemical warfare armourers with gas masks

Anti-Gas Training

Smokescreen anti-gas training

Reapairing Gas Masks

Repairing gas masks in 1944

Gas Mask Demonstration

Army gas mask demonstration. Photo: War Memorial

Gas Warning rattle

Gas warning rattle, Australian Womens Army Service. Photo: War Memorial

Gas Mask Training

Australian Womens Army Service gas mask training. Photo: War Memorial

Disinfecting Respirators

Disinfecting respirators at 4 Base Ordnance Depot. Photo: War Memorial

Townsville Gas Shoot

Meteorolgical analysis at the 25 pounder gas shoot at Townsville. Photo: War Memorial

Respirator Race

24th Australian Infantry Brigade respirator race. Phot: War Memorial

Talmoi Mustard Gas Burn Off

Chemical warfare armourers prepare for the destruction burn of mustard gas at Talmoi

Chemical Research Unit

Chemical Research Unit runway at Bowen. It was from here the mustard gas laden planes flew out for spray and bomb trials

Gas Shell Analysis

2/1 Australian Chemical Warfare Laboratory sample drilling a 25 pounder gas shell. Photo: War Memorial

Arsenic Gas Analysis

Gutzeit arsenic gas analysis. 2/1 Australian Chemical Warfare Laboratory. Photo: War Memorial

Fume Cupboard

Fume cupboard. 2/1 Australian Chemical Warfare Laboratory. Photo: War Memorial

Chemical Warfare Experiment

1st Australian Field trials Company at gas experiment, Proserpine. Photo: War Memorial

Australian Chemical Warfare Section

Field laboratory for the Australian Chemical Warfare Research and Experimental Section at Innisfail, 1943

Chemical Warfare laboratory

Interior of the laboratory of the Australian Chemical Warfare Research and Experimental Section at Innisfail with, in the foreground, two members of the Australian Army Medical Women’s Service. Photo: War Memorial

Chemical Warfare Station

Australian Field Experimental Station at Proserpine. Centre of chemical warfare trials late in the war, having moved from Innisfail. Photo: War Memorial

Chemical Warfare Station

Personnel quarters and office buildings at the Australian Field Experimental Station at Proserpine. Photo: War Memorial

Chemical Warfare Staff

Staff of the Australian Chemical Warfare Research and Experimental Section at Innisfail with. Photo: War Memorial

Chemical Warfare Staff

Chemistry Laboratory Staff of the 1st Australian Field Trials Company at the Australian Field Experimental Station at Proserpine, Queensland.

Gas Mask Testing

A woman tests materials for gas respirator containers in the Munitions Supply Laboratory. Women were vital in all aspects of the war effort and the work at the laboratory was no exception. Circa 1944. Photo: War Memorial

Gas Mask Testing

A factory worker testing gas masks at the Munitions Supply Laboratory. Photo: War Memorial

Making Gas Masks

A woman technician fitting buckles onto the head harness of a respirator at the Munitions Supply Laboratory, October 1940.

Talmoi Igloos

Stored mustard gas spray tanks (empty). The igloos still stand an are used to store hay

88 Mile

View of secret camp at 88 mile

25 Pounder Gas Shell

Examining unexploded gas shell at the 25 pounder trial at Singleton in 1943

Guinea Pigs Being Exposed

Eight servicemen at Forbes taking part in an experimental 25-pounder gas shell shoot by the 2/2nd Field Regiment, Royal Australian Artillery, in a trench in the centre of the target. Once the servicemen have crouched the chemical shell is burst close to the men. February 1943. Phot: War Memorial

Talmoi Chemical Weapons Burn

Firing incendaries into a chemical weapons burnoff at Tamoi after the war

Glenbrook Tunnel Depot

The kitchen (centre) and Airmens’ Mess (left) at the top secret camp at Glenbrook. They were constructed from ‘any available timber’ by the staff at the camp. Mid-1943.

Storeroom at Glenbrook

Storeroom at the Glenbrook chemical weapons depot

Glenbrook Tunnel Camp

Top secret camp just outside western entrance of tunnel

Angeline Ballet

Proof chemical warfare armourers have culture. Novel use of saucepans

Marrangaroo Decontamination Centre

View of temporary ‘decontamination centre’ at Marrangaroo

Picton Tunnel

Temporary building outside the Picton chemical weapons storage tunnel

Picton Tunnel

Mustard gas spray tanks in their containers having just been removed from Picton tunnel. They were scuttled on the Bantam

Talmoi Siding

This is where the chemical weapons arrived at Tamoi. Wool scour in background

Talmoi Igloo

Another view of a Talmoi storage igloo. There were 2 in total

88 Mile

88 Mile camp seen at night. The lighting was organised by Les Johnson, an electrician. It included the use of a stolen generator and beer bottles for insulators

88 Mile

Ghan train taking chemical warfare armourers to the new depot at 88 mile in the Northern Territory

88 Mile

Chemical warfare armourers at 88 mile

1 Base Ammunition Chemical Depot

The decontamination centre of No. 3 sub-depot (chemical warfare ammunition storage area), 1st Base Ammunition Depot (1 BAD). Albury, New South Wales

Sniper Disposal Team

Sniper disposal team venting phosgene bombs by rifle fire at Talmoi, Queensland. January 1946

Chemical Weapons Bomb Trolley

'Leapin Lena' the tractor pulling the bomb trolley out of Glenbrook Tunnel. it was the only practical means of moving the weapons

Glenbrook Tunnel Maintenance Cutting

Glenbrook tunnel cutting maintenance shelter. Eastern end of Glenbrook tunnel where the bombs were vented, derusted etc

Decanting Area Glenbrook Tunnel

Location where leaking drums were decanted of mustard gas. Drums viewable under the shelter

Marrangaroo Maintenance Area

250 lb mustard gas bombs are undegoing maintenance in the Marrangaroo cutting. Transit rings are seen in the centre. They were used to protect the bombs during transport. The bomb 'tails' were attached just prior to use

Idomeneus

Most infamous chemical weapons carrier. A leaking drum resulted in one death and over 100 gas casualties

Les Parsons

Chemical warfare armourer as seen on his air force papers

Les Parsons

After being gassed on the Idomeneus. He went crosseyed, had double pnuemonia and almost died. He was 'photophobic' or allergic to light all his life

Chemical Weapons Carrier

Reputedly a chemical weapons carrier delivering armaments to 88 mile via Darwin port

Mustard Gas Drums

Chemical special no. 6 drums (filled mustard gas) in crates on way to Glenbrook tunnel. Mustard gas men atop

Proserpine

Gas activities at the field station at Proserpine

North Brook Island

Smoke plume arises from North Brooke Island during bombing trial. It will be compared with a mustard gas drop

Hinchinbrook Island

Barges from Hinchinbrook Island bringing men and stores in preparation for mustard gas experiments to be carried out on North Brook Island. 3 March 1944. Photo: War Memorial

Mustard Gas Sampling

Flight Lieutenant Arthur Trewin RAAF taking samples after a mustard gas bombing on North Brook Island. Photo: War Memorial

Guinea Pigs

Volunteers wear full protective clothing and breathing apparatus to test their effectiveness against mustard gas in experiments being conducted at North Brook Island in early March 1944. Photo: War Memorial

Mustard Gas Men

On Hinchinbrook Island prior to the North Brook mustard trials

Mustard Gas Spraying

An aircraft sprays unthickened American levinstein mustard gas on North Brook Island during experiments to test the effects of the gas on human volunteers. A group of volunteers is spread out along the beach below the aircraft. Photo: War Memorial

Mustard Gas Men Plaque Ceremony

Left to right: Geoff Burn, Liz Lewis & Arthur Lewis at Glenbrook Panthers, 11 November 2009 (Remembrance Day), just prior to the formal ceremony

Mustard Gas Men Plaque Ceremony

Left to right: Stuart Glover, Geoff Burn & Doug Bain at Glenbrook Panthers, 11 November 2009 (Remembrance Day), just prior to the formal ceremony

Mustard Gas Men Plaque Ceremony

Doug Bain & David Bradbury MP. 11 November 2009

Mustard Gas Men Plaque Ceremony

Left to right: Stuart Glover, David Bradbury MP, ?, Geoff Burn, Arthur Lewis & Doug Bain listening to opening address. Glenbrook Panthers, 11 November 2009 (Remembrance Day)

Mustard Gas Men Plaque Ceremony

David Bradbury MP, Federal Member of Lindsay gives a speech in honour of the Mustard Gas Men just prior to the unveiling of the plaque

Mustard Gas Men Plaque Ceremony

Left to right: Arthur Lewis, Doug Bain & Geoff Burn unveiling the plaque

Mustard Gas Men Plaque Ceremony

Left to right: Geoff Burn, Doug Bain (partially obscured), Group Captain Graeme Davies (RAAF), David Bradbury MP & Arthur Lewis in front of the plaque

Mustard Gas Men Plaque Ceremony

Left to right: Geoff Burn, David Bradbury MP & Arthur Lewis

Mustard Gas Men Plaque Ceremony

Geoff Burn lays a wreath for all the other Mustard Gas Men who couldn't be at the ceremony

Mustard Gas Men Plaque Ceremony

Stuart Glover, Radio Officer on the Idomeneus. 'It was all my bloody fault - I brought the stuff over from the UK'

Mustard Gas Men Plaque Ceremony

Diana Nelson, daughter of Wilf Myers, the Commanding Officer of the chemical weapons depot at Glenbook tunnel

Mustard Gas Men Plaque Ceremony

Model of Glenbrook tunnel created for the Remembrance Day ceremony at Glenbrook Panthers, 11 November 2009

Mustard Gas Men Plaque Ceremony

Unveiled plaque. Doug Bain's name is grafittied on the wall in photo top left

Mustard Gas Men Plaque Ceremony

Left to right: Geoff Burn, Arthur Lewis & Doug Bain in front of the unveiled plaque

4.5 Inch Howitzer Chemical Shell

A 4.5-inch quick firing howitzer bursting chemical shell

Japanese Chemical Weapons

Type 136A Japanese DC/DA (Diphenylcyanoarsine/ Diphenyl chlorarsine) acid generator

Japanese Chemical Weapons

Type 1612K Japanese self-projecting toxic smoke generator

Japanese Chemical Weapons

Type 1411A DC (Diphenylcyanoarsine) Japanese generator

Japanese Chemical Weapons

Cut out view of Japanese HL (mustard/lewisite) filled shell

Japanese Chemical Weapons

Japanese 150 mm HCN (Prussic Acid) shell

Japanese Chemical Weapons

Cut out of Japanese 150 mm HCN (Prussic Acid) shell

Japanese Chemical Weapons

50 kg type 100 Japanese chemical bomb

Japanese Chemical Weapons

Japanese frangible grenades; HCN (Prussic Acid) Type 172 B-K or 172 C-K (left), copper stabilized type (middle) and smoke [FM-Silicon Tetrachloride type (right)]

Japanese Chemical Weapons

HCN (Prussic Acid) Type 172 B-K Japanese frangible grenade

Japanese Chemical Weapons

Japanese HCN (Prussic Acid) frangible grenade, copper stabilized type

Japanese Chemical Weapons

Container for a Japanese HCN (Prussic Acid) frangible grenade, copper stabilized type